John Webster is Professor Emeritus at the University of Bristol. As Chair of Animal Husbandry at Bristol he established the centre for study of animal welfare and behaviour. A founder member of the UK Farm Animal Welfare Council, he first propounded the ‘Five Freedoms’, internationally recognised as standards defining good welfare. He is a former president of the British Society of Animal Science and the Nutrition Society. His most recent book (2022) ‘Animal Welfare: Understanding Sentient Minds and why it matters’ explores how animals of the land, sea and air have developed their sentient minds to meet the special demands of their environments.